Diamonds are created between 90 and 120 miles under ground. It takes billions of years for them to form and come to the surface. Conditions such as temperature and pressure need to be just right in order for diamonds to form and stay in that state. Igneous rocks and volcanic eruptions help the diamonds reach the surface. Most of the diamonds are found by mining and very few diamonds are found in rivers. Africa has the most mines, but there are several others in the United States, Canada, Russia, India, and Australia. About 80% of the rough diamonds are used for industrial purposes because only 20% is acceptable for polishing. The rough is sorted and priced before it’s sold to manufactures.
The rough is sent to a cutting center where it is inspected to decide how to get the most from the diamond. Once the size is decided it is cut and sawed. Each stone is sent to several cutters who add their own distinctiveness to the diamond. Next it is sold to jewelers who then set the diamond into a ring. However, the internet has created another option, allowing anyone to purchase a diamond. This lowers the cost of the diamond because the buyer can take it the jeweler to have it set in the ring of their choice.
The jeweler determines if the ring’s head (the piece that holds the diamond in place) is adequate. If not, the metal head can be replaced. The head is opened and burrs are placed inside so the diamond sits correctly inside the head. After the diamond is set, tools are used to finish off the tips of the prongs. Prongs should be long enough so the diamond does not fall out, but not too long so they don’t snag on clothing.